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Physical and Magnetic Properties of Ductile Iron

 

EMJ sells Dura-Bar brand 65-45-12 ductile iron, which is good for making electromagnets. 

 

Physical Properties of Ductile Iron and Alternative Materials

Property

Unit

Ductile Iron

0.3% C
Cast Steel

Malleable Iron

Gray
Iron*

120-90-02

100-70-03

80-55-06

65-45-12

60-40-18

Solidus Temperature

F

2,100

2,100

2,100

2,100

2,100

2,650

2,050

2,140

Specific Gravity

lb/in

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.283

0.265

0.25

Mean Linear
Thermal Expansion

F-
x 10
to the -6th

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

7.0

6.7

5.8

Vibration Damping

-

Good

Good

Good

Good

Very Good

Poor

Good

Excellent

Heat of Fusion

BTU/lb

55

55

55

55

55

108

55

55

Specific Heat

BTU/lb/F

0.15

0.15

0.14

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.12

0.13

Thermal Conductivity (near room temperature)

Cal/cmsec C

0.06

0.06

0.08

0.09

0.10

0.11

0.14

0.11

Magnetic Properties

 
Maximum Permeability at 5,000 Gauss

Oersted

290

290

570

2,100

2,100

-

2,350

800

Saturation Induction at 10,000 Oersted

Gauss

-

-

17,600

18,000

18,000

-

-

16,000

Hysteresis Loss

Erg/cm/cycle

-

30

30

5

5

100

20

30

Mechanical Properties

 
Proof Stress

psi

(0.62 to 0.75) x Ultimate Tensile Strength

30,500

(0.65-0.8)
x UTS

-

Modulus of Elasticity
in Tension

psi x 10 to the 6th

25.7

25.7

25.2

23.8

23.8

30.5

25

18.3

Torsional Strength

psi

108,000

90,000

72,000

58,000

50,000

-

34,000

60,000

Modulus of Rigidity

psi x 10 to the 6th

9.6

9.6

9.6

9.3

9.1

11.4

11

7.1

* A medium-high strength gray iron was selected for comparison purposes.

 

Short Summary of Ductile Iron Specifications

Specifying Body

Spec. No.

Class or Grade

Min. Tensile psi

Min.
Yield psi

% Elongation

Heat Treatment

Other Requirements

Uses

Typical Applications

ASTM

A536-80

60-40-18

60,000

40,000

18

May be Annealed

In all grades in this specification chemical composition is subordinate to mechanical properties. However, the content of any element may be specified by mutual agreement. For maximum shock resistant parts to be used at sub-zero temperatures. Pressure-containing castings such as valve and pump bodies.

ASTM

A536-80

65-45-12

65,000

45,000

12

-

Most widely used grade for normal service. Machinery castings subject to shock and fatigue loading.

ASTM

A536-80

80-50-06

80,000

55,000

6

-

Suitable for flame and induction hardening. Crankshafts, gears and rollers.

ASTM

A536-80

100-70-03

100,000

70,000

3

Usually Normalized

Best combination of strength, wear resistance and response to surface hardening. High strength gears, automotive and machine components.

ASTM

A536-80

120-90-02

120,000

90,000

2

Quenched and Tempered

Maximum strength and wear resistance. Pinions, gears, rollers and slides.

 

Short Summary of Austenitic Ductile Iron Specifications

Specifying Body

Spec. No.

Class or Grade

Min. Tensile psi

Min. Yield psi

% Elongation

Heat Treatment

Chemical Analysis and Hardness

Typical Applications

 

% T.C.

%
Si

%
Mn

%
P

%
Ni

%
Cr

BHN

ASTM A439-84

D-2

58,000

30,000

8

 

Min.

 

1.50

0.70

 

18.00

1.75

139

Valve stem bushings, valve and pump bodies in petroleum, salt water and caustic service, manifolds, turbocharger housings, air compressor parts.

Max.

3.00

3.00

1.25

0.08

22.00

2.75

202

D-2B

58,000

30,000

7

 

Min.

 

1.50

0.70

 

18.00

2.75

148

Turbocharger housings, rolls.

Max.

3.00

3.00

1.25

0.08

22.00

4.00

211

D2-C

58,000

28,000

20

 

Min.

  1.00 1.80   21.00  

121

Electrode guide rings, steam turbine dubbing rings.

Max.

2.90

3.00

2.40

0.08

24.00

0.50

171

D-3

55,000

30,000

6

 

Min.

 

1.00

   

28.00

2.50

139

Turbocharger nozzles and housings, steam turbine diaphragms, gas compressor diffusers.

Max.

2.60

2.80

1.00

0.08

32.00

3.50

202

D-3A

55,000

30,000

10

 

Min.

 

1.00

   

28.00

1.00

131

High temperature bearing rings requiring resistance to galling.

Max.

2.60

2.80

1.00

0.08

32.00

1.50

193

D-4

60,000

     

Min.

 

5.00

   

28.00

4.50

202

Diesel engine manifolds, manifold joints.

Max.

.60

6.00

1.00

0.08

32.00

5.50

273

D-5

55,000

30,000

20

 

Min.

 

1.00

   

34.00

 

131

Guidance system housings, gas turbine shroud rings, glass rolls.

Max.

2.40

2.80

1.00

0.08

36.00

0.10

185

D-5B

55,000

30,000

6

 

Min.

 

1.00

   

34.00

2.00

139

Optical system mirrors and parts for dimensional stability, stators for compressors.

Max.

2.40

2.80

1.00

0.08

36.00

3.00

193

D-5S

65,000

30,000

10

 

Min.

 

4.90

   

34.00

1.75

131

Manifolds, turbine housings, turbochargers where high temperatures and severe thermal cycling occur.

Max.

2.30

5.50

1.00

0.08

37.00

2.25

193

ASTM

A571-71 (1976)

D-2M

65,000

30,000

30

Annealed

Min.

2.20

1.50

3.75

 

21.00

 

121

Compressors, expanders pumps and other pressure-
containing parts requiring a stable austenitic matrix at minus 423F (-234C)

ASME

SA571

Max.

2.70

2.50

4.50

0.08

24.00

0.20

171



Short Summary of
ASTM Specification A897-90 / A897M-90 For Austempered Ductile Iron
Grade Min. Tensile Strength

Min. Yield Strength

Elongation Percent Impact Energy* Hardness BHN**

MPa

Ksi

MPa

Ksi

Joules

Ft-lb

125/80/10

 

125

 

80

10

 

75

269-321

850/550/10

850

 

550

 

10

100

 

269-321

150/100/7

 

150

 

100

7

 

60

302-363

1050/700/7

1050

 

700

 

7

80

 

302-363

175/125/4

 

175

 

125

4

 

45

341-444

1200/850/4

1200

 

850

 

4

60

 

341-444

200/155/1

 

200

 

155

1

 

25

388-477

1400/1100/1

1400

 

1100

 

1

35

 

388-477

230/185/-

 

230

 

185

***

 

***

444-555

1600/1300/-

1600

 

1300

 

***

***

 

444-555

* Values obtained using unnotched Charpy bars tested at 72 F (2 C). The values in the table are the
average of the three highest of four tested samples.
** Hardness is not a mandatory specification and is shown for information only.
*** Elongation and impact specifications are not required.

 

 

 

 

 

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